Variation In Armour Of Three Spine Stickleback 2020
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20/10/2016 · A prominent feature of the threespine stickleback is its armour of up to 35 lateral bone plates on each side of the body [3–6]. In addition to lateral plates, the threespine stickleback is equipped with three dorsal and one pair of pelvic spines, which lock in an erect position if attacked. In this study, we found large morphological variation among populations of three‐spined stickleback from North Uist, particularly in armour traits, but also in body length and shape. Our results also show that extreme morphologies that have not been reported in other stickleback radiations, namely small fish with no dorsal and pelvic spines or armour, are present in some of the lakes.

To address this question, we examined the genetic basis of bony armor loss in three freshwater populations of Alaskan threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, that evolved from fully armored anadromous populations in the last 14,000 years. Variation in Morphology and Distribution. Three subspecies are currently recognized by the IUCN: Gasterosteus aculeatus aculeatus is found in most of the species range, and is the subspecies most strictly termed the three-spined stickleback; its common name in Britain is the tiddler, although "tittlebat" is also sometimes used.

Results and Discussion Reverse Evolution of Armor Plates in Lake Washington Sticklebacks. The threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus provides a good model system for elucidation of the ecological and genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic evolution 12, 13. The recent focus on three-spine stickleback is leading to insights into other anatomical variations. Marine stickleback, in addition to having robust pelvic structures, have extensive body armour, consisting of lateral plates down each side of the body, which are also absent in pelvic-reduced freshwater relatives.

Reverse Evolution of Armor Plates in Threespine Stickleback Jun Kitano,1 Daniel I. Bolnick,2 David A. Beauchamp,3 Michael M. Mazur,3 Seiichi Mori,4 Takanori Nakano,5 and Catherine L. Peichel1, 1Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109. Its most diagnostic characters are the number of dorsal spines, of which there are three occasionally four and rarely five, with the first two usually much the larger, and each with a small triangular fin membrane; the small size of the anal spine this is free in the three-spined stickleback but attached to the fin by the fin membrane in the.

Armor protects against predators Edit title. Three. The plate-based armor of the threespine stickleback confers resistance to penetrating attacks due to local structure of individual plates, interlocking mechanisms, plate geometry, porosity, compositional gradients, and surface topology. Edit Hook. Three-spine stickleback Gasterosteus. Most stickleback fish living in the ocean sport heavy armor in the form of bony plates and spines projecting from the back and pelvis. When threatened, a stickleback can simultaneously flare out its pair of pelvic spines and three dorsal spines, making it difficult for predators to swallow them. 3. 01/09/2014 · While the genetic basis to plate morph evolution of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus is well described, the environmental variables that select for different plate and spine morphs are incompletely understood. Using replicate populations of three.

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